All About India

List of Mughal Emperors

Posted on: November 10, 2009

Emperor Birth Reign Period Death Notes
Zaheeruddin Babur Feb 23, 1483 1526-1530 Dec 26, 1530 Founder of the Mughal Dynasty.
Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun Mar 6, 1508 1530-1540 Jan 1556 Reign interrupted by Suri Dynasty. Youth and inexperience at ascension led to his being regarded as a less effective ruler than usurper, Sher Shah Suri.
Sher Shah Suri 1472 1540-1545 May 1545 Deposed Humayun and led the Suri Dynasty.
Islam Shah Suri c.1500 1545-1554 1554 2nd and last ruler of the Suri Dynasty, claims of sons Sikandar and Adil Shah were eliminated by Humayun’s restoration.
Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun Mar 6, 1508 1555-1556 Jan 1556 Restored rule was more unified and effective than initial reign of 1530-1540; left unified empire for his son, Akbar.
Jalaluddin Mohammed Akbar Nov 14, 1542 1556-1605 Oct 27, 1605 Akbar greatly expanded the Empire and is regarded as the most illustrious ruler of the Mughal Dynasty as he set up the empire’s various institutions; he married Mariam-uz-Zamani, a Rajput princess. He eventually founded Din-i-Ilahi, a syncretic religion based on Hinduism and Islam. One of his most famous construction marvels was the Lahore Fort.
Nuruddin Mohammed Jahangir Oct 1569 1605-1627 1627 Jahangir set the precedent for sons rebelling against their Emperor fathers. Opened first relations with the British East India Company. Reportedly was an alcoholic and his wife Empress Nur Jahan became the real power behind the throne and competently ruled in his place.
Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan Jan 5, 1592 1627-1658 1666 Under him, Mughal art and architecture reached their zenith; constructed the Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Jahangir mausoleum and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. Deposed and imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb.
Mohiuddin Mohammed Aurangzeb Alamgir Oct 21, 1618 1658-1707 Mar 3, 1707 More conservative in behavior and far less extravagant as the previous emperors; brought back Islamic law, and the jizya tax. He is well-known for his personal piety and for leading an extremely simple and pious life. His conquests expanded the empire to its greatest extent, incorporating much of southern India;A major and last desperate attempt was also made to conquer Assam during his rule but with no success at Battle of Saraighat; the over-stretched empire would face challenges after his death.
Bahadur Shah I
a.k.a Shah Alaam I
Oct 14, 1643 1707-1712 Feb 1712 First of the Mughal emperors to preside over a steady and severe decline in the territories under the empire’s control and military power. After his reign, the emperor became a progressively insignificant figurehead.
Jahandar Shah 1664 1712-1713 Feb 1713 He was merely a puppet in the hands of his Chief Minister Zulfikar Khan. The acts of Jahandar Shah brought down the prestige of the Mughal Empire.
Furrukhsiyar 1683 1713-1719 1719 In 1717 he granted a firman to the English East India Company granting them duty free trading rights for Bengal, and confirmed their position in India.
Rafi Ul-Darjat Unknown 1719 1719


Rafi Ud-Daulat
a.k.a Shah Jahan II
Unknown 1719 1719


Nikusiyar Unknown 1719 1743


Muhammad Ibrahim Unknown 1720 1744


Muhammad Shah 1702 1719-1720, 1720-1748 1748 Suffered the invasion of Nadir-Shah of Persia in 1739.
Ahmad Shah Bahadur 1725 1748-54 1754


Alamgir II 1699 1754-1759 1759


Shah Jahan III Unknown In 1759 1770s


Shah Alaam II 1728 1759-1806 1806 Suffered the invasion of Ahmed-Shah-Abdali in 1761; granted the ‘Nizami’ of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the BEIC in 1765, formally accepted the protection of the BEIC in 1803.
Akbar Shah II 1760 1806-1837 1837 Titular figurehead under British protection
Bahadur Shah Zafar 1775 1837-1857 1862 Deposed by the British and exiled to Burma following the Great Mutiny.

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